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ss -ntl # tcp port
ss -nul # udp port

ss -nul4 # udp port  -ipv4
ss -nul6 # udp port -ipv6

http://www.ttlsa.com/linux-command/ss-replace-netstat/

ss命令用于显示socket状态. 他可以显示PACKET sockets, TCP sockets, UDP sockets, DCCP sockets, RAW sockets, Unix domain sockets等等统计. 它比其他工具展示等多tcp和state信息. 它是一个非常实用、快速、有效的跟踪IP连接和sockets的新工具.SS命令可以提供如下信息:

所有的TCP sockets

所有的UDP sockets

所有ssh/ftp/ttp/https持久连接

所有连接到Xserver的本地进程

使用state(例如:connected, synchronized, SYN-RECV, SYN-SENT,TIME-WAIT)、地址、端口过滤

所有的state FIN-WAIT-1 tcpsocket连接以及更多

很多流行的Linux发行版都支持ss以及很多监控工具使用ss命令.熟悉这个工具有助于您更好的发现与解决系统性能问题.本人强烈建议使用ss命令替代netstat部分命令,例如netsat -ant/lnt等.

展示他之前来做个对比,统计服务器并发连接数

netstat

time netstat -ant | grep EST | wc -l

3100

real 0m12.960s

user 0m0.334s

sys 0m12.561s

time ss -o state established | wc -l

3204

real 0m0.030s

user 0m0.005s

sys 0m0.026s

netstat

time netstat -ant | grep EST | wc -l

3100

real 0m12.960s

user 0m0.334s

sys 0m12.561s

time ss -o state established | wc -l

3204

real 0m0.030s

user 0m0.005s

sys 0m0.026s

结果很明显ss统计并发连接数效率完败netstat,在ss能搞定的情况下, 你还会在选择netstat吗, 还在犹豫吗, 看以下例子,或者跳转到帮助页面.

常用ss命令:

ss -l 显示本地打开的所有端口

ss -pl 显示每个进程具体打开的socket

ss -t -a 显示所有tcp socket

ss -u -a 显示所有的UDP Socekt

ss -o state established ‘( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )’ 显示所有已建立的SMTP连接

ss -o state established ‘( dport = :http or sport = :http )’ 显示所有已建立的HTTP连接

ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/* 找出所有连接X服务器的进程

ss -s 列出当前socket详细信息:

ss -l 显示本地打开的所有端口

ss -pl 显示每个进程具体打开的socket

ss -t -a 显示所有tcp socket

ss -u -a 显示所有的UDP Socekt

ss -o state established ‘( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )’ 显示所有已建立的SMTP连接

ss -o state established ‘( dport = :http or sport = :http )’ 显示所有已建立的HTTP连接

ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/* 找出所有连接X服务器的进程

ss -s 列出当前socket详细信息:

显示sockets简要信息

列出当前已经连接,关闭,等待的tcp连接

ss -s

Total: 3519 (kernel 3691)

TCP: 26557 (estab 3163, closed 23182, orphaned 194, synrecv 0, timewait 23182/0), ports 1452

Transport Total IP IPv6

  • 3691 - -

RAW 2 2 0

UDP 10 7 3

TCP 3375 3368 7

INET 3387 3377 10

FRAG 0 0 0

11

ss -s

Total: 3519 (kernel 3691)

TCP: 26557 (estab 3163, closed 23182, orphaned 194, synrecv 0, timewait 23182/0), ports 1452

Transport Total IP IPv6

  • 3691 - -

RAW 2 2 0

UDP 10 7 3

TCP 3375 3368 7

INET 3387 3377 10

FRAG 0 0 0

列出当前监听端口

ss -l

Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:Port

0 10 :::5989 :::*

0 5 :rsync *:

0 128 :::sunrpc :::*

0 128 :sunrpc *:

0 511 :http *:

0 128 :::ssh :::*

0 128 :ssh *:

0 128 :::35766 :::*

0 128 127.0.0.1:ipp :

0 128 ::1:ipp :::*

0 100 ::1:smtp :::*

0 100 127.0.0.1:smtp :

0 511 :https *:

0 100 :::1311 :::*

0 5 :5666 *:

0 128 :3044 *:

18

ss -l

Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:Port

0 10 :::5989 :::*

0 5 :rsync *:

0 128 :::sunrpc :::*

0 128 :sunrpc *:

0 511 :http *:

0 128 :::ssh :::*

0 128 :ssh *:

0 128 :::35766 :::*

0 128 127.0.0.1:ipp :

0 128 ::1:ipp :::*

0 100 ::1:smtp :::*

0 100 127.0.0.1:smtp :

0 511 :https *:

0 100 :::1311 :::*

0 5 :5666 *:

0 128 :3044 *:

ss列出每个进程名及其监听的端口

ss -pl

1

ss -pl

ss列所有的tcp sockets

ss -t -a

1

ss -t -a

ss列出所有udp sockets

ss -u -a

1

ss -u -a

ss列出所有http连接中的连接

ss -o state established ‘( dport = :http or sport = :http )’

1

ss -o state established ‘( dport = :http or sport = :http )’

·以上包含对外提供的80,以及访问外部的80

·用以上命令完美的替代netstat获取http并发连接数,监控中常用到

ss列出本地哪个进程连接到x server

ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/*

1

ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/*

ss列出处在FIN-WAIT-1状态的http、https连接

ss -o state fin-wait-1 ‘( sport = :http or sport = :https )’

1

ss -o state fin-wait-1 ‘( sport = :http or sport = :https )’

ss常用的state状态:

established

syn-sent

syn-recv

fin-wait-1

fin-wait-2

time-wait

closed

close-wait

last-ack

listen

closing

all : All of the above states

connected : All the states except for listen and closed

synchronized : All the connected states except for syn-sent

bucket : Show states, which are maintained as minisockets, i.e. time-wait and syn-recv.

big : Opposite to bucket state.

established

syn-sent

syn-recv

fin-wait-1

fin-wait-2

time-wait

closed

close-wait

last-ack

listen

closing

all : All of the above states

connected : All the states except for listen and closed

synchronized : All the connected states except for syn-sent

bucket : Show states, which are maintained as minisockets, i.e. time-wait and syn-recv.

big : Opposite to bucket state.

ss使用IP地址筛选

ss src ADDRESS_PATTERN

src:表示来源

ADDRESS_PATTERN:表示地址规则

如下:

ss src 120.33.31.1 # 列出来之20.33.31.1的连接

# 列出来至120.33.31.1,80端口的连接

ss src 120.33.31.1:http

ss src 120.33.31.1:80

ss src ADDRESS_PATTERN

src:表示来源

ADDRESS_PATTERN:表示地址规则

如下:

ss src 120.33.31.1 # 列出来之20.33.31.1的连接

# 列出来至120.33.31.1,80端口的连接

ss src 120.33.31.1:http

ss src 120.33.31.1:80

ss使用端口筛选

ss dport OP PORT

OP:是运算符

PORT:表示端口

dport:表示过滤目标端口、相反的有sport

ss dport OP PORT

OP:是运算符

PORT:表示端口

dport:表示过滤目标端口、相反的有sport

OP运算符如下:

<= or le : 小于等于 >= or ge : 大于等于

== or eq : 等于

!= or ne : 不等于端口

< or lt : 小于这个端口 > or gt : 大于端口

<= or le : 小于等于 >= or ge : 大于等于

== or eq : 等于

!= or ne : 不等于端口

< or lt : 小于这个端口 > or gt : 大于端口

OP实例

ss sport = :http 也可以是 ss sport = :80

ss dport = :http

ss dport > :1024

ss sport > :1024

ss sport < :32000

ss sport eq :22

ss dport != :22

ss state connected sport = :http

ss ( sport = :http or sport = :https )

ss -o state fin-wait-1 ( sport = :http or sport = :https ) dst 192.168.1/24

ss sport = :http 也可以是 ss sport = :80

ss dport = :http

ss dport > :1024

ss sport > :1024

ss sport < :32000

ss sport eq :22

ss dport != :22

ss state connected sport = :http

ss ( sport = :http or sport = :https )

ss -o state fin-wait-1 ( sport = :http or sport = :https ) dst 192.168.1/24

为什么ss比netstat快:

netstat是遍历/proc下面每个PID目录,ss直接读/proc/net下面的统计信息。所以ss执行的时候消耗资源以及消耗的时间都比netstat少很多

ss命令帮助

ss -h

Usage: ss [ OPTIONS ]

ss [ OPTIONS ] [ FILTER ]

-h, -help this message

-V, -version output version information

-n, -numeric don’t resolve service names

-r, -resolve resolve host names

-a, -all display all sockets

-l, -listening display listening sockets

-o, -options show timer information

-e, -extended show detailed socket information

-m, -memory show socket memory usage

-p, -processes show process using socket

-i, -info show internal TCP information

-s, -summary show socket usage summary

-4, -ipv4 display only IP version 4 sockets

-6, -ipv6 display only IP version 6 sockets

-0, -packet display PACKET sockets

-t, -tcp display only TCP sockets

-u, -udp display only UDP sockets

-d, -dccp display only DCCP sockets

-w, -raw display only RAW sockets

-x, -unix display only Unix domain sockets

-f, -family=FAMILY display sockets of type FAMILY

-A, -query=QUERY, -socket=QUERY

QUERY := {all|inet|tcp|udp|raw|unix|packet|netlink}[,QUERY]

-D, -diag=FILE Dump raw information about TCP sockets to FILE

-F, -filter=FILE read filter information from FILE

FILTER := [ state TCP-STATE ] [ EXPRESSION ]

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ss -h

Usage: ss [ OPTIONS ]

ss [ OPTIONS ] [ FILTER ]

-h, -help this message

-V, -version output version information

-n, -numeric don’t resolve service names

-r, -resolve resolve host names

-a, -all display all sockets

-l, -listening display listening sockets

-o, -options show timer information

-e, -extended show detailed socket information

-m, -memory show socket memory usage

-p, -processes show process using socket

-i, -info show internal TCP information

-s, -summary show socket usage summary

-4, -ipv4 display only IP version 4 sockets

-6, -ipv6 display only IP version 6 sockets

-0, -packet display PACKET sockets

-t, -tcp display only TCP sockets

-u, -udp display only UDP sockets

-d, -dccp display only DCCP sockets

-w, -raw display only RAW sockets

-x, -unix display only Unix domain sockets

-f, -family=FAMILY display sockets of type FAMILY

-A, -query=QUERY, -socket=QUERY

QUERY := {all|inet|tcp|udp|raw|unix|packet|netlink}[,QUERY]

-D, -diag=FILE Dump raw information about TCP sockets to FILE

-F, -filter=FILE read filter information from FILE

FILTER := [ state TCP-STATE ] [ EXPRESSION ]

参考:http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/linux-investigate-sockets-network-connections.html

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